How does government meet growing demands with, at best, unchanged resources? The most important task here is to increase the efficiency of government performance. The international Handbook on Public Sector Efficiency, now appearing with the renowned publisher Edward Elgar, covers the entire scope of this dynamic research field. The handbook is aimed at researchers, practitioners and policy-makers who want to understand and improve value for money in the public sector. In his chapter, Michael Thöne explains the central function of high and increasing quality of public finances.